Optical Readout Systems

Overview
In the most simple versions, diagnostic tools can be developed by spotting the necessary immunoreagents on glass, metal or plastic supports and measuring well-known physical properties such as absorption, fluorescence or interferometry, or more advanced phenomena such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or the evanescent wave (EW).

Fluorescence

Aside from the method used to excite fluorescence (directly or by evanescent wave of a waveguide), new nanomaterials exhibiting fluorescence with improved features have appeared. As an example, quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical features such as higher brightness and improved photostability. Moreover, the wavelength of the emitted fluorescence is directly related to the size of the nanocrystal, which allows tuning the color and developing multianalyte diagnostic platforms.

Two photon versus one photon fluroescence excitation in whispering gallery mode microresonators

Citation: Pastells, C.; Marco, M. P.; Merino, D.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Pasquardini, L.; Lunelli, L.; Pederzolli, C.; Daldosso, N.; Farnesi, D.; Berneschi, S.; Righini, G. C.; Quercioli, F.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Soria, S. Journal of Luminescence 2016, 170, Part 3, 860-865.
 

Funding
CSIC-CNR bilateral project

Fluorescence site-encoded DNA addressable hapten microarray for anabolic androgenic steroids.

Tort, N.; Salvador, J.-P.; Eritja, R.; Poch, M.; Martínez, E.; Samitier, J.; Marco, M.-P. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2009, 28 (6), 718-728. URL.





Funding
d-Watch Array (DEP2007-73224-C03-01); NanoBioMol (NAN2004-09415-C05-02)

Evanescent wave (EW)

The electromagnetic field created on the surface of a waveguide can also be used to monitor biorecognition events occuring on their surface. Nowadays a variety of configurations to guide the light through waveguide systems, or to couple it in and out from the waveguide, have appeared based on the use of micro and nanostrucutres. These systems may be used to develop new transducing systems measuring different optical features such as light interference, critical coupling angle, wavelength, etc. to detect biological phenomena at the surface of waveguides.

Wavelength-interrogated optical biosensor for multi-analyte screening of sulfonamide, fluoroquinolone, [beta]-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics in milk

Citation: Adrian, J.; Pasche, S.; Pinacho, D. G.; Font, H.; Diserens, J.-M.; Sánchez-Baeza, F.; Granier, B.; Voirin, G.; Marco, M. P., TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2009, 28 (6), 769-777. URL
 

 
Funding
GOODFOOD (IST-2003-508774); Conffidence (FP7-211326); DETECTA (AGL2008-05578-C05-01)

Two-photon Fluorescent Immunosensor for Androgenic Hormones using Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures


Citation: Muriano, A.; Thayil, K. N. A.; Salvador, J. P.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Soria, S.; Galve, R.; Marco, M. P., Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2012, 174 (0), 394-401. URL


 
Funding
PANOPTES (AGL2005-07700-C06-01); HINAN; d-Watch Array (DEP2007-73224-C03-01)

Surface Plasmons Resonance (SPR)

This phenomena refers to the coherent oscillations of conduction electrons on a metal surface excited by electromagnetic radiation (i.e. light) at a metal dielectric interface. As occurs with the EW principle, optical sensors based on excitation of surface plasmons, commonly referred to as SPR, have been developed with a variety of configurations, including multianalyte approaches. However, during the last few years research has moved towards the realization of metal nanostructures composed of nanoparticles (NPs), nanoholes, and other components with precisely controlled shapes, sizes, and/or spacings (see figure 1). Such exquisite synthetic control in combination with advances in theory and the emergence of quantitative electromagnetic modelling tools has provided a better understanding of the optical properties of isolated and electromagnetically coupled nanostructures.

Synthesis of Steroid-Oligonucleotide Conjugates for a DNA Site-Encoded SPR Immunosensor

Citation: Tort, N.; Salvador, J. P.; Aviñó, A.; Eritja, R.; Comelles, J.; Martínez, E.; Samitier, J.; Marco, M. P. Bioconjugate Chemistry 2012, 23 (11), 2183-2191.



Funding
OligoCODEs (MAT2011-29335-C03-01)

Nanogold probe enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance immunosensor for improved detection of antibiotic residues

Citation: Fernández, F.; Sánchez-Baeza, F.; Marco, M. P. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2012, 34 (1), 151-158.
 

Funding
DETECTA (AGL2008-05578-C05-01); OligoCODEs (MAT2011-29335-C05-01)

A Label-free and Portable Multichannel Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for On Site Analysis of Antibiotics in Milk Samples

Citation: Fernandez, F.; Hegnerova, K.; Piliarik, M.; Sanchez-Baeza, F.; Homola, J.; Marco, M. P.,  Biosens. Bioelectron. 2010, 26 (4), 1231-1238. URL

 
Funding
d-Watch Array (DEP2007-73224-C03-01); DETECTA (AGL2008-05578-C05-01)

Colloidal-based Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) Biosensor for the Quantitative Determination of Stanozolol


Citation: Kreuzer, M.; Quidant, R.; Salvador, J. P.; Marco, M. P.; Badenes, G., Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2008, 391 (5), 1813-1820. URL
Funding
PANOPTES (AGL2005-07700-C06-01); d-Watch Array (DEP2007-73224-C03-01); GOODFOOD (IST-2003-508774); ELISHA (NMP-A-CT-2003-505485-1)
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